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IOC Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC)

Advancing knowledge and cooperation for a healthy ocean and prosperous society

Monsoon Onset Monitoring

Research updates and publications

Cruise Observation Reports

  • Fifth Cruise, Andaman Sea, 15-18 November 2012
  • Fourth Cruise, Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean, 26 April-14 May 2012
  • Third Cruise, Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean, 19 April-13 May 2011
  • Second Cruise, Andaman Sea, 11-17 March 2011
  • First Cruise, Andaman Sea, 22-28 November 2010


  • Li, K., Liu, Y., Li, Z., Yang, Y., Feng, L., Khokiattiwong, S., W. Yu and S. Liu (2018). Impacts of ENSO on the Bay of Bengal summer monsoon onset via modulating the intraseasonal oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 45. 10.1029/2018GL078109.
  • Liu, Y., Li, K., Ning, C., Yang, Y., Wang, H., Liu, J., Skhokiattiwong, S., Yu, W. (2018). Observed seasonal variations of the upper ocean structure and air-sea interactions in the Andaman Sea. J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans, 123,
  • Li, K., Y. Liu, Y. Yang, Z. Li, B. Liu, L. Xue, W. Yu, Possible role of pre-monsoon sea surface warming in driving the summer monsoon onset over the Bay of Bengal. Climate Dynamics, 2016, 47(3): 753-763.
  • Salimun, E., Tangang, F., Juneng, L., Behera, S. K. and W. Yu. (2014), Differential impacts of conventional El Niñoversus El Niño Modoki on Malaysian rainfall anomaly during winter monsoon. Int. J. Climatol., 34: 2763–2774. doi: 10.1002/joc.3873.
  • Li, K., W. Yu, T. Li, V. S. N. Murty, S. Khokiattiwong, T. R. Adi and S. Budi, 2013, Structures and mechanisms of the first-branch northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation over the tropical Indian Ocean. Climate Dyn., 40:1707–1720, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1492-z.
  • Li, Z., W. Yu, T. Li, V.S.N. Murty and F. Tangang, 2013, Bimodal character of cyclone climatology in Bay of Bengal modulated by monsoon seasonal cycle, J. Climate, 26, 1033–1046, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00627.1.
  • Maneesha, K., VSN. Murty, M. Ravichandran, T. Lee, W. Yu, and M. J. McPhaden, 2012: Upper ocean variability in the Bay of Bengal during the cyclones Nargis and Laila. Progr. Oceanogr., DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.06.006
  • Yu, W.-D., J.-W. Shi, L. Liu, K.-P. Li, Y.-L. Liu, and H.-W. Wang, 2012: The onset of the monsoon over the Bay of Bengal: The observed common features for 2008–2011, Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 5, 314–318. DOI: 10.1080/16742834.2012.11447009
  • Yu, W.-D., K.-P. Li, J.-W. Shi, L. Liu, W.-H. Wang and Y.-L. Liu, 2012: The onset of the monsoon over the Bay of Bengal: The year-to-year variations, Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 5, 342–347. DOI: 10.1080/16742834.2012.11447011
  • Khokiattiwong, S. and W. Yu, 2012: Note on the occurrence of high sea surface temperatures in the Andaman Sea, in 2010, Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bull., 71, 1-9.


Field Survey in Andaman Sea and Eastern Indian Ocean

Science and Capacity Development

Research updates and publications

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WESTPAC. Monsoon onset monitoring: What is it?. IOC Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific website,, 27/09/22.

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WESTPAC. Monsoon onset monitoring: What is it?. IOC Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific website,, accessed on 27/09/22.

Field Survey

The SEAGOOS program works to establish several pilot ocean forecasting systems for selected subdomains including the Andaman Sea (Thai’s waters) and the Malaysian East Peninsula Continental Shelf, for high resolution development.